时间:2006-05-09 21:17  282次点击 | 0 关注



  Section One Vocabulary (30 Points)

  I. Match the words in Column A with their definitions in Column B. Write the letter of the answer to each word in Column A on your Answer Sheet. (10 points, 1 point for each)

  (A) (B)

  1. assess A. danger

  2. assemble B. skillful

  3. execute C. causing much argument or disagreement

  4. hazard D. obviously, clearly

  5. scarcity E. fix or put together

  6. regulator F. judge the quality or worth of

  7. strategic G. carry out

  8. controversial H. easily harmed, hurt or wounded

  9. vulnerable I. a person who makes others to obey rules

  10. apparently J. inadequate supply compared with demand

  Ⅱ. Read each of the following sentences carefully. Choose A, B, C or D that has the closest meaning to the underlined word or phrase and write the corresponding letter on your Answer Sheet. (10 points, 1 point for each)

  11. One important reason for many of the accidents in the nuclear plants is that safety procedures were either inadequate or ignored.

  A. underestimated B. overdone

  C. unnoticed D. overlooked

  12. The third meaning of the term “foreign exchange” is that it covers, in a general way, the rates at which foreign exchange is quoted.

  A. removes B. conceals

  C. reports D. treats

  13. As spring comes to Bering Sea, whales, seals and many other migrating animals are swimming southward through the Bering channels.

  A. traveling B. mating

  C. wandering D. breeding

  14. Observation is much more precise beyond the atmosphere, because the sky is darker.

  A. apparent B. accurate

  C. impressive D. enjoyable

  15. Forecasters have to take into account a broad diversity of themes.

  A. disagreement B. division

  C. variety D. intensity

  16. The British government has been urged to make an inquiry into a nuclear plant because there have been too many accidents there.

  A. look into B. ask about

  C. search for D. seek after

  17. The pilgrims had been to Jerusalem to worship the God when the tragedy happened.

  A. tourists B. worshipers

  C. viewers D. tramps

  18. Dr. Owen is taking the issue further by pressing for a scrutiny of the accident-prone plant itself.

  A. a supervision B. a solution

  C. an inspection D. a discussion

  19. In modern industry, water fulfills several essential functions.

  A. ideal B. actual

  C. compulsory D. necessary

  20. “Good writing”, says Harvard University historian Richard Marius, “is a kind of wrestling with thought.”

  A. trying hard to bring out ideas B. trying hard with imagination

  C. collecting information D. striving for explanation

  Ⅲ. Scan the following passage and find the words which have roughly the meanings given below. Write the word you choose in the corresponding space on your Answer Sheet. (10 points, 1 point for each)

  Note: The numbers in the brackets refer to the numbers of paragraphs in the passage.

  21. chemicals that form into chains of protein (1)

  22. suggested (1)

  23. a celestial object that lands on earth (2)

  24. scarce (3)

  25. persons who have different opinions and doubts (3)

  26. was in charge of (3)

  27. matter (4)

  28. large moving celestial bodies (4)

  29. let out (5)

  30. connect (6)

  (1) George Grow Scientists say they have found two unusual amino acids in ancient rocks in Denmark. They say their findings provide support for the idea that dinosaurs died after a huge space rock hit Earth sixty-five million years ago. The idea that dinosaurs died after a space crash was proposed in 1980 by scientists at the University of California at Berkeley.

  (2) Those scientists said a huge comet hit Earth at great speed. The crash created a large cloud of dust. The cloud blocked sunlight from reaching Earth. Without sunlight, Earth’s weather cooled sharply. The cold weather killed plants and other foods the dinosaurs ate. Soon, the animals were all dead.

  (3) The California scientists proposed this idea after finding large amounts of the element iridium. The element was in a layer of ground formed about the time dinosaurs died. Iridium is rare on Earth. But large amounts are found in space objects such as asteroids and comets. Critics of this idea say the iridium may not have come from space. They say it could have been created by volcanoes on Earth. The latest study was headed by Jeffrey Bada and Meixun Zhao of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in California.

  (4) The scientists examined rocks from Stevns Klint in Denmark. They found large amounts of two unusual amino acids near a lager of iridium. The amino acids were in a layer formed about the same time dinosaurs died. The scientists looked for these substances in rocks from other time periods. They found none. The scientists noted that the two amino acids are found in meteorites, but are rare on Earth. The scientists said they probably did not come from Earth’s volcanoes.

  (5) Surprisingly, the two amino acids found in Denmark were not found in the same layer as iridium. They were found above and below it. The scientists say the amino acids may have leaked out of the iridium layer.

  (6) A separate report said there is little question that the amino acids came from space. And it said the amino acids are dated correctly. But it said more investigation is needed to link the acids with the death of dinosaurs.

  Section Two Reading Comprehension (40 Points)

  Ⅳ. Skim the following pasasge and read the statements given right after the passage and judge whether they are true or false. Write“T”for true and“F”for false on your Answer Sheet. (10 points, 1 point for each)

  (1) A crucial political transition in Iraq began at the end of the occupation on June 28 and will last until the general elections set for December 31,2005, as has been documented in the supreme law of today’s Iraq, the Transitional Administrative Law. The interim government was sworn in on June 1, waiting to take the reigns of sovereignty from the Coalition Provisional Authority. Questions remain whether, in the coming 18 months, the interim government can revive Iraq’s sluggish post-war reconstruction and exert effective control over the country.

  (2) First of all, the legitimacy of the new government remains an issue. The president, vice presidents, prime minister and ministers have all been appointed, not elected popularly. Both President Ghazi al-Yawer and Prime Minister Iyad Allawi were plucked from the U.S.-picked Governing Council. Also, one third of the new cabinet are also members of the council. The only difference between the interim government and the Governing Council is that all the 25 members of the council were appointed by the United States alone, while the 33 members of coming government have a UN stamp of approval. As the interim government, like the Governing Council, was not elected by the Iraqi people, its authority as a pro-democratic institution is questionable.

  (3) The second unknown is whether the interim government can establish some kind of power balance. The Transitional Administrative Law says that the interim government is a federal body consisting of legislative, executive and judicial authorities. The National Congress (275 members) is the legislature. The presidency council (one president and two vice presidents) and the council of ministers (including the prime minister) constitute the executive offices, while the judiciary is made up of a higher judicial council and a federal supreme court, including its branches. Based on a “checks and balances”system among the legislature, judicial and executive bodies, the three branches of government, in theory, provide decentralized balance of powers inside a federal framework, which is based on the government of the United States.

  (4) It is still to be seen whether the interim government can agree on a workable constitution and relinquish authority to the will of the Iraqi people once elections do take place. According to the Transitional Administrative Law, from the handover to the end of 2005, Iraq will hold several regional elections, including two for the national congress. There will also be a national referendum on the constitution. The UN will dispatch a group to facilitate the process, but it will not be easy.

  (5) Iraq had long been under the role of a hereditary monarch and then a military general after a coup in 1958. Saddam Hussein had exercised heavy-handed rule, allowing no political opposition in the country. Most Iraqis have never experienced democratic rights and may indeed find it hard initially to adapt themselves to such a system. The interim government, therefore, faces a task to implement a political system that Iraqis are neither familiar with nor fully trusting of. Nor are the new leaders.

  (6) Furthermore, numerous political factions, religious sects and tribes in Iraq remain deep-rooted. Kurds, in the mountainous north, accounting for 22 percent of Iraqi population, have a standing army of nearly 70,000. Many locals do not want to let go of the de facto autonomy they have had, under U. S. and British air protection, since the 1991 Gulf war. Hussein attempted to subjugate the Kurds under his role, so they have thus been very cooperative with the coalition army.

  (7) Yet another variable is whether the interim government can independently exert state power. Despite the explicit support of the UN (supposed to represent the international community), the interim government is still on the leash of the United States, though perceptions may vary to what degree and for how long this will be the case. It is undeniable, nonetheless, that this new government will have limited power. The United States will keep its 138,000 troops in Iraq at least for the duration of the transitional period. The new Iraqi Government has expressed its wish to have, at minimum, a supervisory role in military operations after the turnover. But the Iraqi army and police force will continue to be largely under U. S. leadership. It is very possible, especially in the election of 2005, that there will be differences between the U. S. authorities and the Iraqi Government to regarding the rate at which the army is put under Iraq control.

  (8) The security situation in Iraq is still very volatile. Since U. S. President George W. Bush declared the end to major combat on May 1 last year, terrorist bombings against coalition forces and UN personnel as well as Iraqi people have continued, worsening as of late. Several kidnappings of foreigners have occurred. Worse still, the prisoner abuse scandal has seriously eroded U. S. and British credibility in Iraq. Many Iraqis see occupation forces as an invader and occupier rather than liberator. The political vacuum in Iraq has allowed Al Qaeda to extend its violent campaign to Iraq. How the interim government will restore law and the people’s loyalty is yet to be seen.

  31. The Iraqi transitional government took over in June 28 but it would not be a democratically elected government.

  32. The governing period for the Iraqi interim government is about 16 months.

  33. One third of the 33 members of the new government come from the Governing Council.

  34. In paragraph 3, the writer doubts that the interim government can provide a decentralized balance of power like the U. S. model.

  35. Iraq will hold both regional elections for the National Congress and a national referendum on the constitution after 2005.

  36. Before Saddam Hussein’s regime, Iraq had been ruled by a monarch.

  37. There are doubts about whether the new government can make decisions independently and restore law and people’s loyalty.

  38. The Iraqi people welcome restoration of a political system though they are not so familiar with it.

  39. People both inside and outside Iraq expect that the security situation will turn better after the takeover of the new government.

  40. The writer expresses doubts and uncertainties about the new government’s chances of success in the following year.

  Ⅴ. Read the following passages and choose the correct answer, Write the corresponding letter on your Answer Sheet. (20 points, 1 point for each)

  Passage 1

  (1) Can environmentalists learn to love loggers? The World Bank certainly hopes so. It has just unveiled a new forestry policy that embraces a controversial but promising approach to conserving the rainforest: sustainable harvesting.

  (2) After unrelenting criticism from non-governmental groups, the agency adopted a policy a decade ago that sharply curtailed lending for forestry. That pleased some radical greens, who wanted an outright ban on all lending to logging companies. It even suited some senior bank staff just fine, since they were tired of being abused by environmentalists, they were happy to divert money instead into uncontroversial areas such as education. The snag was that deforestation continued in the developing world even faster, some argued, because the agency had walked away from the industry and left it to the real baddies. Even the World Bank’s internal audit department heaped scorn on that approach.

  (3) Now, says the bank, it will start lending seriously to forestry again. However, the companies and countries involved must adhere to a code of good behavior: clear-cutting and over-harvesting are out; low-impact logging and“sustainable use”by local people are in. The aim, the bank says, is to improve“the livelihoods of some 500m people living in extreme poverty, who depend on forests, while improving the environmental protection of forests in the developing world. ”

  (4) Could a flood of money benefit the world’s rainforests? Optimists think that sustainable harvesting will“crowd out”the unsustainable kind. Maybe. But money alone will not do much, argues Frances Seymour of the World Resources Institute, a think-tank in Washington, D. C. She reckons that lack of clear property rights, murky licensing arrangements and outright corruption-rather than lack of money-are what drives deforestation in many poor countries.

  (5) Moreover, seemingly unrelated policies, such as those offering subsidies for agricultural expansion or road-building, can often make even the most virtuous forestry policy irrelevant. If the bank is to do much good for the rainforest, concludes Guillermo Castilleja of the WWW, an activist group, it must be willing to use its influence in national capitals to push countries and companies towards greener policies overall, not just in forestry. The message seems to be getting through. As Ian Johnson, the World Bank’s vice president for the environment, puts it,“what happens outside the forest is at least as important as what happens inside.”

  41. The new forestry policy issued by the World Bank is more likely to favor______.

  A. logging companies B. green environmentalists

  C. bank staff D. non-governmental agencies

  42. The World Bank’s new policy will_______.

  A. satisfy all parties involved B. win over environmentalists

  C. see no chances of success D. adopt another approach to loggers

  43. The World Bank’s new policy aims at_______.

  A. lending money to forestry

  B. promoting a code of good behavior

  C. developing a sustainable-use attitude in forestry

  D. regulating forestry in some developing countries

  44. Paragraph 2 intends to show _______.

  A. a debate over the Bank’s new policy

  B. grounds for the Bank’s new approach

  C. criticism from environmentalists

  D. outcome of the previous policy

  45. The writer implies that the World Bank’s previous policy was welcomed by many groups EXCEPT ______ .

  A. green environmentalists B. non-governmental organizations

  C. some senior bank staff D. logging companies

  46. The new policy will NOT encourage _______.

  A. low-impact cutting B. clear-logging

  C. sustainable harvest D. lending to forestry

  47. Which statement is NOT accurate for paragraph 4?

  A. Money won’t work at all.

  B. Sustainable harvest will be obtained.

  C. Rainforests will be maintained.

  D. Unsustainable harvest will die out.

  48. According to Frances Seymour, the factor that will LEAST affect the outcome of the Bank’s new policy is _______.

  A. lack of clear property rights B. murky licensing arrangements

  C. outright corruption D. lack of money

  49. Which of the following is NOT listed as a factor that will influence the success of the new policy?

  A. Subsidies for agriculture. B. Road expansion.

  C. Adoption of green policy. D. Capital from local government.

  50. The last paragraph focuses on _______.

  A. pointing out irrelevant policies

  B. protecting rainforests

  C. putting forward suggestions

  D. pushing greener policies

  Passage 2

  (1) More and more Japanese want to work for the gaijin. They have stood up to be counted, and they are just over a million strong. That is how many Japanese now work for foreign firms operating in their country, according to the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO), which released its first survey of foreign firms’ employment on October 22nd. By the standards of rich economies, that is still a small number: roughly 2.3% of the workforce, compared with well over 5% in the United States and Germany. But given the insularity and inflexibility that still hobble too many Japanese firms, this small source of alternative jobs offers an outlet for those who are getting a raw deal in corporate Japan.

  (2) In general, foreign firms in Japan attract people whose talents are either under-rewarded or allowed to waste away in local companies. That applies especially to women, who despite high education levels are in much less rewarding white-collar jobs than their western counterparts. Indeed, bright Japanese women lose out to slower and lazier men so frequently in office jobs that even being a flight attendant is considered a high-flying career for more than the obvious reason. Of the Japanese firms that female graduates most want to work for, two are airlines and one is NHK, a large broadcaster.

  (3) In such an environment, foreign companies are only too happy to recruit female talent. JETRO, which like most Japanese organizations seems uninterested in whether such talent is being wasted, did not bother to count how many of those million workers were women. But judging by the number of overqualified female MBAs and law-school graduates who are queuing for even a basic job as a secretary, it is a high percentage.

  (4) Men who want to be paid for their performance –i. e. , those who are clever and productive-are also increasingly drawn towards foreign firms. This is not surprising, since many Japanese companies continue to reward conformity and seniority over cleverness and talent. Jesper Koll, chief economist at Merrill Lynch in Tokyo, points out that the spread between salaries in Japan has begun to rise over the past few years, though it is still much lower than in Britain or the United States. One reason for this, he says, is that pay-for-performance is increasing in Japan. Foreign firms appear to be leading this trend, which started with foreign investment banks.

  (5) To some extent, however, bright young Japanese college graduates are still drawn towards Japanese companies that are considered safe and prestigious. Unsurprisingly, the three most popular places for male university graduates are Sony, Honda and Toyota. And IBM Japan, which young Japanese say is ninth on their list of favorite employers, is now considered to be practically a Japanese company by many locals.

  (6) However, if Japanese firms learn to tap Japanese talents, some may recruit professionals who have worked for a foreign firm, as some Japanese banks have tentatively begun to do. Might that tiny 2.3% of the workforce contain a bigger share of Japan’s future business leaders?

  51. Generally foreign firms in Japan are attractive to those who _______.

  A. appreciate western culture B. want to have some new experience

  C. want to take a new challenge D. want to realize their worth

  52. Japanese women work in foreign firms because they _______.

  A. have a good education background

  B. don’t like their own lazier male colleagues

  C. admire their American counterparts

  D. get better treatment for their merits

  53. Female graduates prefer to work for Japanese airlines and NHK because they _______.

  A. can travel a lot to many countries

  B. enjoy flying from place to place

  C. can dress well and make a good money

  D. don’t have to compete with male colleagues

  54. The way JETRO conducted its survey released in October indicates that this organization


  A. reports the percentage of female workers in the work force

  B. concerns with the lack of equal opportunity for female talents

  C. has the same attitude toward female talents as most other Japanese firms

  D. considers the percentage of work force working in foreign firms is small

  55. Jesper Koll, chief economist in Tokyo, points out that _______.

  A. foreign firms are leading trends in Japan

  B. the salaries for employees are now on the rise

  C. the gap in salaries becomes larger now in Japan

  D. pay-for-performance is widely accepted in Japan

  56. The man who is _______ will probably NOT go to a foreign firm.

  A. clever B. productive

  C. competent D. veteran

  57. Japanese companies such as Sony, Honda and Toyota are still attractive to bright male graduates as these companies will give them a sense of _______.

  A. belonging B. security

  C. pride D. fame

  58. The tone the writer uses in describing Japanese firms is _______.

  A. favorable B. hostile

  C. critical D. neutral

  59. Which is most likely to be true about the writer? The writer is _______.

  A. a westerner B. Japanese

  C. from JETRO D. a job applicant

  60. From the article we can draw a conclusion that most Japanese firms rely heavily on _______ for promotion.

  A. merits B. talents

  C. seniority D. attitude

  Ⅵ. The following passage is taken from the textbook. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer. Write the corresponding letter of the answer on your Answer Sheet. (10 points, 1 point for each)

  (1) The whole world seemed to be black, black nothingness. The sky was black with bright, shining stars that never twinkled. The sun, a white, burning disk, seemed to hang in the black velvet of the surrounding heavens. This was the scene that spread before the eyes of the first astronaut who left his spaceship to walk in outer space. The name of the Russian astronaut who performed this feat was Leonov, and the date of his walk in space was March 18, 1965. Several months later a similar feat was performed by the first American astronaut to walk in space. Both of these“space walkers”had spent months previous to their flight learning how to control their movements under the strange conditions which exist in space. Wearing their thick space suits, they learned to deal with an environment where there is neither weight nor gravity, neither“up”nor“down”.

  (2) We do not realize how much we depend on the earth’s gravity until we are deprived of it. Then our feet no longer stay on the ground, we float around in the air, and the slightest touch may send us drifting off in the opposite direction.

  (3) In the laboratories where astronauts are trained for their journeys, they are subjected to conditions that resemble those of flight. It takes time for them to prepare for the great changes that occur in space. When the spaceship leaves the earth at tremendous speed, the astronauts feel as if they are being crushed against the spaceship floor. Later, when they leave the zone of the earth’s gravitation, they are unable to stay in one place, Simple actions, such as eating and drinking, become very difficult to perform. You may get an inkling of what the astronauts have to deal with if you try to drink a glass of water while standing on your head or while just lying down.

  (4) The beginnings of man’s conquest of space took place in 1958, seven years before Leonov’s trip. The first successful launching of“Sputnik”demonstrated that it was indeed possible to send objects far enough out of range of earth’s gravity so that they would not fall back to earth. Rather, such objects could be forced to revolve about the earth, just as the moon does. However, while the moon is so far from earth that it takes it a month to revolve around the earth, manmade satellites, which are closer to earth, can make a complete revolution in a few hours.

  (5) It was three years after the first satellite launching that a spaceship containing a man made a successful flight. The flight lasted less than two hours, but it pointed the way to future developments.

  (6) Other planets are so far away that spaceships must attain tremendous speeds to reach them in a reasonable time. If spaceships were launched from space or from the moon, the absence of weight would permit the ships to be launched with great speed at reduced pressures. A relatively small explosion would be enough to send a ship off at a very fast rate. And, since there is no atmosphere in space as there is on earth, the spaceship would meet with no resistance. To illustrate this point, remember how strong the wind feels if we are traveling fast in a car; then imagine a car traveling through an area where there is no wind. The windless condition is comparable to the condition in outer space.

  (7) The first astronaut to walk in space, Leonov, and his companion, Beliaiev, began making preparations for the walk as soon as their spaceship was launched. The spaceship was equipped with a double door, which was fitted with a bellows between the ship and the outside. This made it possible for the astronaut, in his space suit with oxygen supply, to go first from the air-filled ship to the bellows. Then the air was let out of the bellows, and, while the man stepped outside, the air inside the ship remained at normal pressure. If the door had opened directly into space, the air in the ship would have rushed out and been lost when the door opened.

  (8) Leonov and Beliaiev practiced testing the doors several times after they had begun revolving around the earth. When the time came for Leonov to go out, his companion helped him attach the cable that was to keep him from floating away from the ship. Then Leonov entered the bellows, and the door closed behind him. As the air was let out of the bellows, he felt his suit swell up because of the air pressure inside. When there was no air left in the bellows, the outer door opened, and Leonov could see, simultaneously, the blackness of space and the blinding light of the sun.

  (9) If the sky appears blue to us on earth, it is because the earth’s atmosphere absorbs a certain number of blue rays of sunlight. Out where there is no air, this phenomenon does not take place. On the earth, our atmosphere diffuses light so that, when the sun is up, light seems to be everywhere. However, in the airless realms of outer space, strong lights, such as the sun, exist side by side with a dark similar to the dark of the blackest night. The absence of air also explains why the stars do not seem to twinkle in space, as they do from the earth.

  (10) Leonov reported that the earth appeared as a huge, round disk, filling a large part of the sky. He found that the relief of hills and mountains was more easily observed from that distance than from a plane flying at a few thousand feet.

  (11) While Leonov was outside the ship, he kept in touch by telephone with his companion and with the earth. He opened the shutter of the movie camera, which made a record of what he did and saw. When the signal was given for him to return to the ship, he was enjoying the cosmos so much that he was disappointed to have to stop his wanderings so soon.

  61. A great problem astronauts have to overcome in space travel is _______.

  A. gaining speed at set-off B. going through the bellows

  C. keeping their suits intact D. moving at the loss of gravity

  62. … they are subjected to conditions that resemble those of flight (paragraph 3). The underlined part means _______.

  A. they are exposed to B. they are attracted to

  C. they are referred to D. they are confined to

  63. The successful launch of Sputnik is significant in that _______.

  A. it enables men to walk on the moon

  B. it is possible to send men to space right away

  C. it proves that spaceship can launch from space

  D. flying objects can break away from the earth’s gravity

  64. The launch of the first spacecraft containing a man took place in _______.

  A. 1958 B. 1961

  C. 1965 D. 1969

  65. Artificial satellites go faster round the earth than the moon because the former travel _______.

  A. at a lower orbit round the earth B. at a higher orbit round the earth

  C. at a faster speed with less pressure D. at a slower speed with more pressure

  66. The best place from which to launch a spaceship to other planets is probably _______.

  A. North America B. the equator

  C. a satellite in space D. a station on the earth

  67. Leonov’s spaceship had a double door in order to _______.

  A. prevent the loss of air

  B. keep the inside spaceship warm

  C. accustom the astronaut to the lack of air

  D. give him time to attach himself to the ship

  68. What do you know about Leonov’s space walk?

  A. It lasted longer than planned. B. It lasted longer than he wished.

  C. It stopped unexpectedly. D. It lasted shorter than he wished.

  69. In space the sky appears dark because _______.

  A. the sun does not shine there

  B. there is no atmosphere

  C. the earth’s atmosphere takes all the blue rays

  D. the earth’s atmosphere takes all the rays from the sun

  70. The passage is most likely to appear in a _______.

  A. science fiction book B. history book

  C. popular science book D. science journal

  Section Three Questions & Translation (30 Points)

  Ⅶ. The following questions are closely related to the passage in Item Ⅵ. Write a brief answer (one to three complete sentences) to each of the questions on your Answer Sheet. Pay attention to the words, grammar and sentence structure in your answers. (15 points, 3 points for each)

  71. What does the outer space look like?

  72. What would happen if the earth had no gravity?

  73. What experiment does the writer suggest we take in order to have a real feel of the conditions to which the astronauts are exposed in space?

  74. What difference would it make to launch spaceships from the moon to reach other planets?

  75. How did Leonov feel and what did he find during his walk in space?

  Ⅷ. Translate the following sentences (taken from the passage in Item Ⅵ) into Chinese. Write the Chinese version in the corresponding space on your Answer Sheet. (15 points, 3 points for each)

  76. Wearing their thick space suits, they learned to deal with an environment where there is neither weight nor gravity, neither“up”nor“down”.

  77. We do not realize how much we depend on the earth’s gravity until we are deprived of it. Then our feet no longer stay on the ground, we float around in the air, and the slightest touch may send us drifting off in the opposite direction.

  78. In the laboratories where astronauts are trained for their journeys, they are subjected to conditions that resemble those of flight. It takes time for them to prepare for the great changes that occur in space. When the spaceship leaves the earth at tremendous speed, the astronauts feel as if they are being crushed against the spaceship floor.

  79. Other planets are so far away that spaceships must attain tremendous speeds to reach them in a reasonable time. If spaceships were launched from space or from the moon, the absence of weight would permit the ships to be launched with great speed at reduced pressures.

  80. Leonov reported that the earth appeared as a huge, round disk, filling a large part of the sky. He found that the relief of hills and mountains was more easily observed from that distance than from a plane flying at a few thousand feet.





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