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2010职称英语重点语法考点解析之非谓语动词

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zhangjian 时间:2010-12-01 13:39  967次点击 | 0 关注

 在职称英语考试中,虽然不直接考语法知识,但是没有一定语法知识的储备,是无法正确理解所读文章的内容并做出正确判断的,因此在职称英语备考中对于语法知识的复习也是非常重要的。多数参加职称英语考试的考生,已参加工作多年,且绝大多数人在各种事业单位和国有企业中工作,工作过程中很少有英语应用机会,个人英语能力相对于大学已经有明显退步。所以,英语语法的复习就成了备考中既重要又让考生头痛的环节。

  新东方在线网络课堂职称英语辅导团队整理了历年考试中重点涉及的语法知识点,并将在近期陆续推出,以帮忙职称英语考生来重新熟悉并达到熟练运用。

  非谓语动词是常考查和较难的一个语法点,希望通过对非谓语动词用法的详解,可以帮助考生更好的掌握非谓语动词的相关考点,为进行阅读学习打下良好的语法基础。

  非谓语动词也叫非限定动词或动词的非谓语形式。非谓语动词主要包括动名词、不定式和分词(现在分词和过去分词),即动词的非谓语形式除了不能独立作谓语外, 具有动词的部分语法特征,可以承担句子的任何成分。

  一、动名词

  1.定义:

  动名词是由动词或动词短语转换而成的名词性结构,其构成的形式是在动词或动词短语的动词后面加上ing。

  2.功能:

  动名词(或动名词短语)在句中起名词的作用,可用作主语、表语、宾语(动词或介词的宾语)和定语等。

  (1)作主语

  e.g.  Reading aloud is very helpful. 朗读是很有好处的。

  (2)作表语

  e.g.  In the ant city, the queen's job is laying eggs. 在蚂蚁王国,蚁后的工作是产卵。

  (3)作宾语(动词或介词的宾语)

  e.g. We have to prevent the air from being polluted. 我们必须阻止空气被污染。

  (4)作定语

  e.g·He can't walk without a walking-stick. 他没有拐杖不能走路。  

  3.考点:

  动名词在职称英语中往往不是不直接进行考察,而是把动名词结构放在英语的句子中,然后考察考生对句含动名词结构的这个句子的句意的准确了解。所以,考生在复习中主要需要弄清楚动名词在英语句子中的四种语法功能。

  4.与分词做定语的区别:

  现在分词由原形动词+ing构成,如designing,leaving,stopping等现在分词作定语时,表示正在进行的动作,或经常性的动作,或表示现状。由此可见现在分词与动名词结构在“形”上相似。考生需要能区分现在分词作定语和动名词作定语的情况。动名词作定语往往表示所修饰的名词的功能/用语,现在分词作定语强调分词结构中的动作正在进行。

  Give the note to theloudly-speaking(现在分词作定语)man. 请把便条交给坐在正在高声说话的人。

  I’d like to buy a washing(动名词作定语)maching。(a machine for washing). 我想要一台洗衣机。

  5.常接动名词作宾语的动词:

  acknowledge,advocate,anticipate,appreciate,advise,avoid,admit,consider,delay,deny,dislike,enioy,escape,excuse,fancy,favor,finish,f1orgive,imagine,include,involve,justify,keep,mind,miss,pardon,practice,postpone,permit,report,resent,resume,risk,resist,suggest,tolerate

  6.动名词的习惯用法与句型:

  be busy/active doinz sth。

  have difficulty/trouble/problems/struggle(in)doing sth。

  It's no good/use doing sth。

  have a good/hard/difficuh time doing sth。

  spend/waste time doing sth。

  There is no point/sense/harm/use/good(in)doing sth。

  cannot help doing sth。

  There is no use doing sth

  二、不定式

  1、动词不定式形式:(to)+do具有名词、形容词、副词的特征;否定式:not+(to) do

  2、不定式的句法功能:

  (1)作主语:

  To finish the work in ten minutes is very hard。

  To lose your heart means failure。

  动词不定式短语作主语时,常用it作形式主语,真正的主语不定式置于句后,例如上面两句可用如下形式:

  It is very hard to finish the work in ten minutes。

  It means failure to lose your heart。

  常用句式有:

  1、It+be+名词+to do。

  2、It takes sb.+some time+to do。

  3、It+be+形容词+of sb +to do。

  4、It+be+形容词+for sb.+to do。

  常用careless,,clever,good,foolish,honest,kind,lazy,nice,right,silly,stupid,wise,等表示赞扬或批评的形容词,不定式前的sb。可作其逻辑主语。

  (2)作表语:

  Her job is to clean the hall。

  He appears to have caught a cold。

  (3)作宾语:

  常与不定式做宾语连用的动词有:want, hope, wish, offer, fail, plan, learn, pretend, refuse, manage, help, agree, promise, prefer, 如果不定式(宾语)后面有宾语补足语,则用it作形式宾语,真正的宾语(不定式)后置,放在宾语补足语后面,例如:

  Marx found it important to study the situation in Russia. 动词不定式也可充当介词宾语,如: I have no choice but to stay here。

  He did nothing last Sunday but repair his bike。

  动词不定式前有时可与疑问词连用,如: He gave us some advice on how to learn English。

  (4)作宾语补足语: 在复合宾语中,动词不定式可充当宾语补足语,如下动词常跟这种复合宾语:want, wish, ask, tell, order, beg, permit, help, advise, persuade, allow, prepare, cause, force, call on, wait for, invite。

  此外,介词有时也与这种复合宾语连用,如: With a lot of work to do, he didn't go to the cinema。

  有些动词如make, let, see, watch, hear, feel, have等与不带有to的不定式连用,但改为被动语态时,不定式要加to, 如: I saw him cross the road. /He was seen to cross the road。

  (5)作定语:

  动词不定式作定语,放在所修饰的名词或代词后。与所修饰名词有如下关系:

  ①动宾关系:

  I have a meeting to attend。

  注意:不定式为不及物动词时,所修饰的名词如果是地点、工具等,应有必要的介词,如:

  He found a good house to live in。

  The child has nothing to worry about。

  如果不定式修饰time, place, way,可以省略介词:

  He has no place to live。

  This is the best way to work out this problem。

  如果不定式所修饰名词是不定式动作承受者,不定式可用主动式也可用被动式:

  Have you got anything to send?

  Have you got anything to be sent?

  ②说明所修饰名词的内容:

  We have made a plan to finish the work。

  ③被修饰名词是不定式逻辑主语:

  He is the first to get here。

  3、难点解析

  (1)接不定式或动名词在意思上有区别的动词:

  fmean to do想要(做某事)propose to do打算(做某事)

  mean doing意味(做某事)propose doing建议(做某事)

  forget to do忘记(要做的事)remember to do记得(要做某事)

  forget doing忘记(已做的事)remember doing记得(已做过的事)

  regret to do(对将要做的事)遗憾go on to do继而(做另一件事)

  regret doing(对已做过的事)后悔go on doing继续(做原来的事)

  fstop to do停下来去做另一件事

  stop doing停止正在做的事

  (2)下列动词短语中的to是介词,后面应接动名词或名词:

  object to,resort to,react to,contribute to,look forward to,be accustomed to,be committed to.be exposed to,be subjected to,be devoted to,be dedicated to,be opposed to,be reconciled to,be contrary to

  三、分词

  1. 分词作定语

  1) 分词作定语既可以放在所修饰的词之前,作前置定语,也可以放在所修饰的词后面,作后置定语。其作用相当于一个定语从句。例如:

  Where are the reserved seats? (=Where are the seats which have been reserved?)

  预定的座位在哪里?

  This is a pressing problem. (=This is a problem which is pressing。)

  这是一个紧迫的问题。

  2) 分词作后置定语可分为限制性(紧跟在所修饰的中心词之后)和非限制性(用逗号与其所修饰的中心词分开)两种,其作用分别相当于一个限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。例如:

  The funds raised (= which have been raised) are mainly used for helping the homeless。

  筹集的资金主要用来帮助那些无家可归的人。

  There are many students waiting (= who are waiting) to get examined。

  有许多学生在等待检查。

  This book, written (= which is written) in simple English, is suitable for beginners。

  本书是用浅显的英语写的,适合初学者。

  3) 分词常和形容词、副词或名词构成合成形容词作定语。例如:

  The flower-carrying girl must be waiting for someone。

  那位手持鲜花的姑娘一定在等人。

  The newly-built building is our office building。

  这座新建的大楼是我们的办公楼。

  4) 有些不及物动词的过去分词作定语,并不表示被动的意思而是表示完成。这类过去分词常作前置修饰语。例如:

  There are a lot of fallen leaves in autumn。

  秋天有许多落叶。

  The film describes the story about the police who pursue an escaped man。

  这部电影描述的是警察抓逃犯的事。

  常用的这一类词有:fallen, faded, returned, retired, risen, grown up, vanished等。

  2. 分词作宾语补足语

  1) 跟分词作宾补的动词有:catch, have get, keep, hear, find, feel, leave, make, want, start, notice, observe, watch, set等。例如:

  When they returned home from the holiday, they found their house stolen。

  当他们度假完回到家时,发现房子被盗了。(过去分词表示被动)

  2) 在复合宾语中,用现在分词作宾补,说明宾语是动作的发出者,形成逻辑上的主谓关系;用过去分词作宾补,表示宾语是动作的承受者,构成逻辑上的动宾关系。例如:

  There was so much noise that the speaker couldn't make himself heard。

  由于十分吵闹,讲话人没法让人听到他的声音。

  When he awoke, he found himself being looked after by an old woman。

  他醒来的时候发现一位老大娘正在照顾他。

  3. 分词作状语

  1) 分词或分词短语作状语时,可以表示时间、原因、让步、条件、方式或伴随状况。通常可转换成相应的状语从句;表示方式或伴随状况的可以转换成并列句或非限制性定语从句。例如:

  Confined to bed (= Because she was confined to bed), she needed to be waited on in everything。

  她卧病在床,什么事都需要人伺候。(作原因状语)

  Having only book knowledge (= If you only have book knowledge), you will not be

  able to work well。

  如果只有书本知识,你就不可能做好工作。(作条件状语)

  They stood there waiting for the bus. (=They stood there and waited for the bus。)

  他们站在那里等公共汽车。(作方式状语)

  2) 现在分词和过去分词作状语时的用法比较

  不管是现在分词还是过去分词作状语,如果单独作状语,其逻辑主语必须和主句的主语一致。分词作状语通常可以转换成一个相应的状语从句,如果状语从句中的谓语动词为被动结构,就用过去分词;如果状语从句中的谓语动词为主动结构,就用现在分词。有时为了强调,分词前可带连词when, while, if, though, as if, unless等一起作状语,以便使句子的意思更清楚、更连贯。例如:

  Working hard (If you work hard), you will succeed。

  如果你努力,你会成功的。

  Defeated (= Though he was defeated), he remained a popular boxer。

  虽然他被击败了,但他仍然是一个受人喜爱的拳击手。

  4. 分词的独立结构

  1) 分词作状语时,要特别注意其逻辑主语必须和谓语动词的主语一致。否则,分词必须有自己的主语,这种带主语的分词被称为分词的独立结构,或叫独立主格。在句中作状语,表示时间、原因、条件等。例如:

  The project finished, they had a two weeks' leave。

  完成那个计划后,他们休了两周假。

  He being absent, nothing could be done。

  由于他缺席,什么事也没法干。

  2) 独立结构有时也可以用“with/ without +名词(或代词的宾语)+ 分词”的结构,表示伴随状况。例如:

  They sat there silently, (with) their eyes fixedon the lake。

  他们静静地坐在那里,眼睛看着湖面。

  With him helping me, I felt lucky。

  有他的帮助,我感到很幸运。

  5 . 容易混淆的现在分词和过去分词

  像 interesting 和 interested 一类的分词在意义和用法上很容易混淆,一般可作如下区分:

  ( 1 )一部分表示“情感;心情”等意义的动词的现在分词有“令人……的;具有……性质的”的意思,常用来说明人或事物的特征或性质。如:

  The president made an inspiring speech at the meeting yesterday。

  ( 2 )它们的过去分词有“感到……的”的意思,用来指人的感觉或所处的状态,因而它的主语一般不可能是指物的词。如:

  He was too excited to fall asleep。

  这类容易混淆的分词常见的有: encouraging, encouraged; disappointing, disappointed; exciting, excited; inspiring, inspired; interesting, interested; puzzling, puzzled; astonishing, astonished; surprising, surprised 等。

  经典例题解析:

  1.The Olympic Games, ______ in 776 B.C,did’t include women players until 1919.

  A.first playing       B.to be first played       C.first played               D.to be first playing

  析:根据题干,必须选表示被动的选项,故排除A、D;因B选项表“将要被举行”意,不合题干之用,只有C选项(相当于which was first played)才合用。

  2.European football is played in 80 countries, ______ it the most popular sport in the world。

  A.making             B.makes                             C.made                 D.to make

  析:B、C是谓语动词,在此不可用。D项to make或表目的,或表“将要使得”,这都不合题干情景。只有A.making,可作状语,表结果。再举一现在分词作结果状语例: The bus was held up by the snowstorm,causing the delay。公共汽车被大风雪所阻,因而耽误了。

  3.Little Jim should love ______ to the theatre this evening。

  A.to be taken               B.to take                      C.being taken        D.taking

  析:根据this evening,应选表示将来义的选项,C、D应排除。Take后无宾语,必然要用被动式,故答案为A。

  4.John was made ______ the truck for a week as a punishment。

  A.to wash             B.washing                    C.wash                 D.to be washing

  析:根据be made to do sth。句式,可定答案为A。

  5.The patient was warned ______ oily food after the operation。

  A.to eat not           B.eating not                 C.not to eat           D.not eating

  析:根据warn sb。(not)to do sth。句式,可排除B、D两项;又根据非谓语动词的否定式not总是在首位的规律,又可排除A,而定C。

  6.——I usually go there by train. ——Why not ______ by boat for a change?

  A.to try going       B.trying to go              C.to try and go      D.try going

  析:此题可根据why not后直接跟原形动词规律而一举确定正确答案为D。若将B项改为try to go,则要根据其与try going意义之别来确定答案。依据题干对话内容,乙方是建议甲方尝试乘船变变花样,所以答案仍为D。

  7.______ a reply,he decided to write again。

  A.Not receiving                   B.Receiving not          

  C.Not having received        D.Having not received

  析:非谓语动词的否定式not应置于首位,B、D皆为错误形式。A项不能表达先于decided的动作,只有选C项才表没收到信在先,决定再写信在后,所以C为正确答案。

  8.Charles Babbage is generally considered ______ the first computer。

  A.to invent           B.inventing           C.to have invented        D.having mvented

  析:consider表“考虑”意时,其后动词用doing形式,此处不表“考虑”,而表“认为”,这时consider后作宾语补足语或主语补足语多为to do,to have done,to be等形式。据此可排除B、D两个选项。又因A表“要发明”意,不合题用,只有C表“发明了”意,才合题用,故选C。

 

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