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​测测你自己:高敏感人群的16个习惯

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吉你妹 时间:2017-05-24 13:02  2051次点击 | 0 关注
Do you feel like you reflect on things more than everyone else? Do you find yourself worrying about how other people feel? Do you prefer quieter, less chaotic environments?
你是否觉得自己看待事物比其他人想得多?你是否发现自己总在担心其他人的感受?你是不是更喜欢安静一些,少些嘈杂的环境?
  
If the above sound true to you, you may be highly sensitive. The personality trait -- which was first researched by Elaine N. Aron, Ph.D., in the early 1990s -- is relatively common, with as many as one in five people possessing it. Aron, who has written multiple studies and books on high sensitivity, including The Highly Sensitive Person, also developed a self-test (which you can take here) to help you determine if you are highly sensitive.
  如果以上描述对你适用,那么你很可能属于高敏感人群。这种个性特征是相对普遍的,每五个人中就有一人属于此类。伊莱恩·阿隆博士在20世纪九十年代早期首次对此进行了研究,她写过数篇研究报告和数本相关图书,其中包括《高度敏感的人》。她同时也开发了一个自我测试来帮助你决定自己是不是高度敏感(你可以跟着这篇文章进行测试)。
  
While recent interest in introversion -- driven largely by high-profile publications on the subject, including Susan Cain's book "Quiet," -- has brought more awareness to personality traits that value less stimulation and higher sensitivity, Aron notes that highly sensitive people still tend to be considered the "minority."
  近期,包括苏珊·凯因的《安静》在内的诸多内向主题出版物高调发表,引起了大众对此的极大兴趣,人们更加注意到喜欢少些刺激和有着更高敏感度的个性特征。阿隆博士提到,高敏感人群现在仍被认为是“少数”。
  
But "minority" doesn't mean bad -- in fact, being highly sensitive carries a multitude of positive characteristics. Read on for some of the commonalities shared by highly sensitive people.
  但“少数”并不意味着不好——实际上,高度敏感的人有一系列积极正面的个性特征。跟着本文一起看看高敏感度人群的一些常见的个性特征吧。
  
1. They feel more deeply.
1. 他们的感受更加深刻。
  
One of the hallmark characteristics of highly sensitive people is the ability to feel more deeply than their less-sensitive peers. "They like to process things on a deep level," Ted Zeff, Ph.D., author of The Highly Sensitive Person's Survival Guide and other books on highly sensitive people, tells HuffPost. "They're very intuitive, and go very deep inside to try to figure things out."
  高敏感度人群的特征标志之一就是他们比低敏感的的同伴有着更深刻的感受。“他们喜欢在深层面掌握事物,”曾编写《高敏感度人群的生存指南》以及其他相关书籍的特德·泽夫博士对《赫芬顿邮报》说道:“他们有敏锐的直觉,会深刻思考寻找问题的答案。”
  
2. They're more emotionally reactive.
2. 他们的情感反应更丰富。
  
People who are highly sensitive will react more in a situation. For instance, they will have more empathy and feel more concern for a friend's problems, according to Aron. They may also have more concern about how another person may be reacting in the face of a negative event.
  高敏感度的人对于一个情景会做出更多反应。比如,根据阿隆博士的说法,他们更会站在他人的角度考虑,对朋友遇到的难题也更有同感。他们也许会更加顾虑到其他人遇到不好的事情会怎样反应。
  
3. They're probably used to hearing, "Don't take things so personally" and "Why are you so sensitive?"
3. 他们很可能已经习惯听到“别往心里去“和”为什么你这么敏感?“之类的话。
  
Depending on the culture, sensitivity can be perceived as an asset or a negative trait, Zeff explains. In some of his own research, Zeff says that highly sensitive men he interviewed from other countries -- such as Thailand and India -- were rarely or never teased, while highly sensitive men he interviewed from North America were frequently or always teased. "So a lot of it is very cultural -- the same person who is told, 'Oh, you're too sensitive,' in certain cultures, it's considered an asset," he says.
  泽夫博士解释道,文化决定敏感可以被视作一笔财富或者一种负面特质。泽夫博士在研究中采访过来自其他国家的高敏感人群,比如泰国和印度的高敏感的人很少或者几乎没被别人取笑过,而北美的高敏感人群经常被作为取笑的对象。“所以,这很大程度上都和文化有关——在某些国家,同样一个人被别人说成‘你太敏感了!’,而在有些国家,这被视为一种个人财富,”他如此总结道。
  
4. They prefer to exercise solo. 


4. 他们更喜欢独自锻炼。
  
Highly sensitive people may tend to avoid team sports, where there's a sense that everyone is watching their every move, Zeff says. In his research, the majority of highly sensitive people he interviewed preferred individual sports, like bicycling, running and hiking, to group sports. However, this is not a blanket rule -- there are some highly sensitive people who may have had parents who provided an understanding and supportive environment that would make it easier for them to participate in group sports, Zeff says.
  泽夫博士介绍说,高敏感的人可能倾向于避开团队运动,因为他们会觉得每个人都在看着他的一举一动。在他的研究中,他采访的大部分高敏感的人更喜欢个人运动,比如骑自行车,跑步或者徒步旅行。然而,这并不适用于所有高敏感人群——由于家人提供了理解和支持的成长环境,有些高敏感的人可能更容易参与群体运动。
  
5. It takes longer for them to make decisions.
5. 他们做决定需要更长时间。
  
Highly sensitive people are more aware of subtleties and details that could make decisions harder to make, Aron says. Even if there is no "right" or "wrong" decision -- for example, it's impossible to choose a "wrong" flavor of ice cream -- highly sensitive people will still tend to take longer to choose because they are weighing every possible outcome. Aron's advice for dealing with this: "Take as long to decide as the situation permits, and ask for more time if you need it and can take it," she writes in a recent issue of her Comfort Zone newsletter. "During this time, try pretending for a minute, hour, day, or even week that you have made up your mind a certain way. How does that feel? Often, on the other side of a decision things look different, and this gives you a chance to imagine more vividly that you are already there." One exception: Once a highly sensitive person has come to the conclusion of what is the right decision to make and what is the wrong decision to make in a certain situation, he or she will be quick to make that "right" decision again in the future.
  高敏感的人更能意识到那些让做决定变得困难的细节,阿隆讲道。即使没有“对”或者“错”的选择,比如,不可能会选到有“错误”口味的冰激凌,但高敏感的人仍会考虑更久,因为他们想要衡量每个可能的结果。对此,阿隆给出以下建议:“情况允许的情况下,能考虑多久就考虑多久,如果你需要并且可以得到,争取更多时间。”她在她的最近一期《舒适区》的通讯中写道,“在这段时间, 一分钟,一小时,一天,甚至一星期,试着假装你是以某种特定的方式做出决定的。这是什么感觉?一个选择的相对面通常看起来非常不同,这样做给你尽情想象做了另外一个选择的机会。”例外:一个高敏感的人一旦得出正确和错误选择的结论,以后在需要做出“正确”选择的时候他或者她会很快做出选择。

6. And on that note, they are more upset if they make a "bad" or "wrong" decision.
6. 基于以上,他们会为自己做出的“不好的”或者“错误的”选择感到更加沮丧。
  
You know that uncomfortable feeling you get after you realize you've made a bad decision? For highly sensitive people, "that emotion is amplified because the emotional reactivity is higher," Aron explains.
  你知道当你意识到自己做了不好的选择时那种不舒服的感觉吧?对于高敏感的人,“这种情感会被放大,因为他们情感上的反应更加灵敏,”阿隆解释道。
  
7. They're extremely detail-oriented. 


7. 他们极度注意细节。
  
Highly sensitive people are the first ones to notice the details in a room, the new shoes that you're wearing, or a change in weather.
  高敏感的人们是会第一个注意到一个房间的细节,你穿的新鞋子,或者天气的变化。
  
8. Not all highly sensitive people are introverts.
8. 并不是所有高敏感的人都是内向个性。
  
In fact, about 30 percent of highly sensitive people are extroverts, according to Aron. She explains that many times, highly sensitive people who are also extroverts grew up in a close-knit community -- whether it be a cul-de-sac, small town, or with a parent who worked as a minister or rabbi -- and thus would interact with a lot of people.
  实际上,根据阿隆的说法,大约30%的高敏感的人是外向个性。她解释说很多时候外向性格的高敏感人群都是在邻里关系密切的社区长大—无论是小巷子,小镇子,或者父母之一是牧师或者法师,因此他们会和很多其他人互动。
  
9. They work well in team environments.
9. 他们在团队中的工作做得很棒。
  
Highly sensitive people are such deep thinkers, they make valuable workers and members of teams, Aron says. However, they may be well-suited for positions in teams where they don't have to make the final decision. For instance, if a highly sensitive person was part of a medical team, he or she would be valuable in analyzing the pros and cons of a patient having surgery, while someone else would ultimately make the decision about whether that patient would receive the surgery.
阿隆说道,因为高敏感的人是深度思考者,他们会成为很有价值的员工和团队成员。然而,他们可能很适合被安排到团队中不需要做最终决定的位置。比如,如果一个高敏感的人是一个医疗团队的一员,他或她会在分析给病人做手术的好处和坏处时充分体现价值,而另外一个人会最终决定到底要不要给病人做手术。
  
10. They're more prone to anxiety or depression (but only if they've had a lot of past negative experiences).
10. 他们会更容易焦虑或者压抑(只是在他们过去有很多负面经历的情况下)。
  
"If you've had a fair number of bad experiences, especially early in life, so you don't feel safe in the world or you don't feel secure at home or ... at school, your nervous system is set to 'anxious,'" Aron says. But that's not to say that all highly sensitive people will go on to have anxiety -- and in fact, having a supportive environment can go a long way to protecting against this. Parents of highly sensitive children, in particular, need to "realize these are really great kids, but they need to be handled in the right way," Aron says. "You can't over-protect them, but you can't under-protect them, either. You have to titrate that just right when they're young so they can feel confident and they can do fine."
“如果你有过相当多的负面经历,尤其是在人生早期的时候,你会觉得这个世界不安全或者你在家也没有安全感,或者…在学校也没有,你的神经系统已经被设定为‘焦虑’模式,”阿隆讲道。但这并不是说所有的高敏感度人都会继续焦虑下去——实际上,一个充满他人支持的环境可以很长久地保护他们远离焦虑。尤其是高敏感的孩子的父母,需要“意识到这些孩子非常棒,只是需要以正确的方式教育,”阿隆讲道。“你不能过度保护,但你也不能保护不足。你必须在他们小的时候就小心地掌握好保护的程度,这样他们会感到自信而且可以做得很好。”

11. That annoying sound is probably significantly more annoying to a highly sensitive person.
11. 噪音对于高敏感的人来讲可能更加恼人。
  
While it's hard to say anyone is a fan of annoying noises, highly sensitive people are on a whole more, well, sensitive to chaos and noise. That's because they tend to be more easily overwhelmed and overstimulated by too much activity, Aron says.
阿隆说,任何人都不喜欢噪音,总体来讲,高敏感的人更是这样,他们对嘈杂和噪声更加敏感。那是因为他们很容易被太多的活动压垮和过度刺激。
  
12. Violent movies are the worst.
12. 暴力电影最糟糕。
  

Because highly sensitive people are so high in empathy and more easily overstimulated, movies with violence or horror themes may not be their cup of tea, Aron says.
因为高敏感的人很容易有共鸣和被过度刺激,有暴力或者恐怖主题的电影可能不适合他们。
  
13. They cry more easily.
13. 他们更容易哭。
  
That's why it's important for highly sensitive people to put themselves in situations where they won't be made to feel embarrassed or "wrong" for crying easily, Zeff says. If their friends and family realize that that's just how they are -- that they cry easily -- and support that form of expression, then "crying easily" will not be seen as something shameful.
泽夫说,这就是为什么对于高敏感的人来讲,让自己置身于哭不会产生尴尬或者让人感觉做错了的情况非常重要。如果他们的朋友和家人意识到哭是他们本会有的表现,并且支持这种表达,那么“很容易哭”就不会被认为是种耻辱。
  
14. They have above-average manners.
14. 他们在礼仪方面比一般人做得更好。
  
Highly sensitive people are also highly conscientious people, Aron says. Because of this, they're more likely to be considerate and exhibit good manners -- and are also more likely to notice when someone else isn't being conscientious. For instance, highly sensitive people may be more aware of where their cart is at the grocery store -- not because they're afraid someone will steal something out of it, but because they don't want to be rude and have their cart blocking another person's way.
阿隆介绍说,高敏感的人们是非常小心谨慎的。因此他们更倾向于为他人着想和表现更好的礼仪——也更容易发现其他人的不谨慎。比如,高敏感的人在购物时可能更会注意到他们的购物车在哪儿——不是因为怕别人偷东西,而是因为他们不想不礼貌地让自己的购物车挡了别人的路。
  
15. The effects of criticism are especially amplified in highly sensitive people.
15. 批评的影响尤其会在高敏感的人这里被放大。
  
Highly sensitive people have reactions to criticism that are more intense than less sensitive people. As a result, they may employ certain tactics to avoid said criticism, including people-pleasing (so that there is no longer anything to criticize), criticizing themselves first, and avoiding the source of the criticism altogether, according to Aron."People can say something negative, [and] a non-HSP [highly sensitive person] can say, 'Whatever,' and it doesn't affect them," Zeff says. "But a HSP would feel it much more deeply."
  高敏感的人相比低敏感的人对批评有更强烈的反应。因此,他们会发展特定的策略去避免批评,包括迎合他们(这样就再也没什么可批评的了),先自我批评,同时避免各种批评一起席卷而来,阿隆这样讲道。 “人们可以讲负面的东西,一个低敏感的人可以说,‘随便吧!’而这不会影响他们,” 泽夫讲道。“但是一个高敏感的人会有更深度的感觉。”
  
16. Cubicles = good. Open-office plans = bad. 

16. 小隔间=棒。开放办公室=糟糕。
  
Just like highly sensitive people tend to prefer solo workouts, they may also prefer solo work environments. Zeff says that many highly sensitive people enjoy working from home or being self-employed because they can control the stimuli in their work environments. For those without the luxury of creating their own flexible work schedules (and environments), Zeff notes that highly sensitive people might enjoy working in a cubicle -- where they have more privacy and less noise -- than in an open-office plan.
就像高敏感的人倾向于喜欢独自运动,他们也可能更喜欢单独的工作环境。泽夫说很多高敏感的人很享受在家工作或者个体经营,因为这样他们可以控制工作环境中的外界刺激。对那些没有这种奢侈去创造适合自己个人的灵活的工作时间(和环境)的人而言,高敏感的人可能喜欢在小隔间工作,和开放办公室相比,他们会有更多的私人空间和更少的噪音。
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